Article 1. The name of the Association is International Association of Botanic Gardens (IABG).
Article 2. The Association shall be affiliated with the International Union of Biological Societies (IUBS) as a Scientific Member and as a member of the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS).
Section 2. Objectives and Means
Article 3. The objectives of the IABG shall be:
a) To promote international cooperation among Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and other similar institutes and organizations maintaining scientific collections of living plants and among the staffs of such institutes; and work with and foster cooperation between botanic garden organizations at national and regional levels.
b) To promote the documentation and exchange of information, plants and specimens of mutual interest among Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and other similar institutes.
c) To promote the study of plants, especially those that are of scientific, economic or cultural interest, through their cultivation within Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and similar institutes and organizations, and through research on the taxonomy, physiology, reproductive biology and phenology of plants, both wild and cultivated.
d) To foster the role of Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and other appropriate organizations in habitat and species conservation, recovery and restoration and to promote cooperation in these fields between IABG and such organizations.
e) To promote the science and practice of horticulture and gardening, including the study and the practices of plant introduction, adaptation, selection and breeding, and develop cooperation with relevant institutions and associations.
f) To develop cooperation with urban horticulture and provide advice on urban greening.
g) To promote awareness of the risks posed by invasive alien species and adopt precautionary measures to prevent their introduction and spread as well as those with invasive potential.
h) To promote awareness about the aims and goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its associated protocols, especially the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
i) To strengthen the role and recognition of botanic gardens as major scientific and cultural organizations in addressing a wide range of environmental and social issues, at the national, regional and global levels.
Article 4. The objectives of the IABG shall be pursued by the same methods and procedures as those provided in the IUBS, either jointly or independently. These methods and procedures shall include:
I) The publication of papers, books and indices, in printed form or electronically;
ii) the establishment of committees for special purposes;
iii) the organization of meetings and symposia relating to the work of Botanic Gardens and Arboreta and any other activities consistent with the objectives of the IABG;
iv) the promotion of the objectives of Botanic Gardens and Arboreta throughout the world; and
iv) the formation of Regional Divisions which, on recognition by the Council, may nominate a representative to the Council. Regional Divisions will prepare their own Constitution in line with that of IABG and elect their own President and other Officers.
Section 3. Membership
Article 5. All persons actively engaged or interested in the work of Botanic Gardens and Arboreta are eligible for individual membership in the IABG.
Article 6. All Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and other institutes or organizations actively engaged or interested in the objectives of the IABG are eligible for institutional membership in the IABG.
All members of Regional Divisions are automatically members of IABG.
Article 7. Application for membership may be made in writing to the IABG Secretary General/IABG-Secretariat and, if applicable, by payment of the appropriate annual fee to the IABG. In the case of institutional membership, the application must be signed by a person authorized to act on behalf of this institution. The IABG Secretary General is responsible for keeping the membership list up to date.
Article 8. Membership is ended either through a written statement of the member (in the case of institutional membership signed by a person authorized to act on behalf of this institution) or, if annual fees are being charged, if that fee has not been paid for three consecutive years. In this case the IABG Secretariat will contact the individual or institutional member in written form to inform them about the potential end of the membership, which will automatically end three months after that letter is sent if there is no response from the member.
Section 4. Counciland Executive Committee
Article 9. All activities of the IABG shall be guided and controlled by a Council which shall consist of five officers; a President, a First and Second Vice-President, the immediate Past-President, the Secretary General; and a maximum of 15 at-large Council Members. Normally not more than two members of the Council shall be residents of the same country when elected. All members of the Council shall be individual members of the IABG. The presidents of regional divisions shall be ex-officio members of the Council with voting rights.
Article 10. The Council shall convene regularly, at least once each year. The Council shall discuss current and pending IABG activities, especially issues related to the work plan, and the preparation of and representation at relevant meetings and activities. Council members shall propose activities they consider relevant to reach the aims of the IABG.
Article 11. The Council is, inter alia, responsible for voting on the IABG-work plans and the promotion of IABG-issues on the international, regional and national levels. A quorum for votes of the Council shall be the simple majority of the then-members of the Council.
Article 12. The President, Vice-Presidents, Past-President and Secretary-General shall constitute the Executive Committee, which will, in accord with the constitution, be in charge of the representation of the IABG and carry out the IABG work plan or other tasks that may be delegated to them by the Council. The Council shall ensure that the Executive Committee is enabled to carry out its tasks and that the work plan is followed.
Article 13. The Executive Committee shall establish a regular process of communication and should convene on a regular basis to ensure the timely preparation of activities for which they are responsible.
Article 14. The Council shall be elected by a majority of the votes cast by members in a ballot organized and conducted by the IABG Secretariat at least one month prior to a regular meeting of the IABG at which an election of the Council has been designated as an agenda item. Such meetings must occur within six years following the previous meeting. The information about and the organization of the election and voting can be distributed and conducted by mail or electronically. All votes received by the IABG Secretariat within the time set in the ballot form shall be valid.
Article 15. The President, the Vice-Presidents and the Secretary General shall normally hold office for one six-year term. At-large Council Members shall hold office for a six-year term, but may be eligible for re-election for an additional six-year term. An at-large Council Member may be elected as an officer after serving one or two regular terms.
Article 16. Any vacancy occurring during the term of office of a Council member other than that of President can be filled by the Council. In the case of a vacancy in the presidency, the First Vice-President shall fill the remaining term of office. If the First Vice-President is unable to serve, the Past-President shall act as President until the next regular meeting of the IABG at which an election is conducted.
Article 17. The Council may at any time co-opt additional members for special purposes and may elect Honorary Members. Honorary numbers do not have a vote.
Article 18. The Council shall have the power to make by-laws for carrying into operation the terms of the Constitution (see section 7)
Section 5. Secretariat and Committees
Article 19. The Council may establish a Secretariat, which normally should be located in the host institution of the Secretary General. The Secretary General will be responsible for the operation and any staffing of the Secretariat.
Article 20. The Secretariat shall support the work of the Secretary General and the IABG Council. A major task of the Secretariat would be the management of updated membership lists.
Article 21. The Council shall have power to appoint committees or working groups to further the objectives of the IABG and shall define the composition, duties and powers of such committees.
Section 6. Meetings and Elections
Article 22. The IABG shall hold a general meeting whenever possible at each International Botanical Congress. A business meeting should be held at such meetings. Other regular meetings may be arranged to permit the election of the Council and to conduct appropriate business. Notice of the business meetings shall be sent to members at least three months before the date of the meeting.
Article 23. Each individual member shall be entitled to one vote at a regular business meeting of the IABG or on any ballot. An institutional member shall be entitled to one vote at a regular business meeting of the IABG or on any ballot provided that a person representing that institution has been designated in writing to the IABG-Secretariat.
Article 24. A quorum of a regular business meeting will be 25 members.
Article 25. At least six months prior to a regular business meeting at which an election will be conducted, the President shall appoint a nominating committee of not less than three, but not more than five, members to nominate officers and Council Members for the ensuing period. The report of this committee shall be submitted to the IABG Secretariat at least five months prior to the business meeting and shall form the basis of the ballot for the election of the Council. Other nominations, endorsed by three members, may be sent to the IABG Secretariat and shall be included on the ballot. All nominees must be individual members of the IABG, or designated representatives of institutional members.
Article 26. The nominating committee, when considering candidates for office, shall strive to make their nominations representative, and shall, as far as possible, take account of the diverse interests of Botanic Gardens, Arboreta and allied institutes or organizations as well ensuring a good geographical representation. Whenever the nominating committee sees fit, it may propose more candidates than necessary for election, but not more than twice the number to be elected to the same position.
Section 7. By-Laws and Amendments
Article 27. Amendments to the Constitution may be proposed in writing by any member of the IABG. Such amendments receiving the approval of a majority of the Council shall be submitted to the members for a ballot. Adoption shall require favorable vote of two-thirds of the votes cast.
(Ratified at the 14th IABG General Meeting held on 26 July 2017)